If the present day Earth radius of km is divided by 1. One of the key goals has been to not only determine the conditions surrounding the formation of Earth, but also the whole evolutionary sequence of Earth and periodization of all major geological events. Our attention here is focused on the characterization of geological time that encompasses the evolutionary sequence of the material geological environment, or more accurately, the stratigraphic divisions.


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We call time geological due to specifics regarding the fixation of geological events over billions of years. Stratigraphic divisions are associated with certain development stages, and then they disappear as they are replaced by other divisions i. Exhaustive knowledge on methodological aspects of geological theories and isotope time sequences has been demonstrated in many works, for example, the work by Wells [ 1 ]. Studies of geological time typically begin with event relation determinations early—late events, ancient—recent events and finish with continuity determinations and positioning on the modern geochronological scale.

These studies may involve both qualitative and quantitative observations. Qualitative topological treatments of geological time are ultimately connected to quantitative metric treatments. Specifically, topological characteristics are often used for determining the relative age and order of discreet geological events, whereas metric characteristics are used to determine the specific ages and lengths of geological events. Specific geological ages, which can be referred to as absolute times versus relative times, are determined conventionally by radiometric methods.

Such estimates can span from the modern era into the deep geological past and are presented in descending order i.

Earth sciences - Radiometric dating | lurytoguno.tk

The estimates are derived from isotope data, which are converted into radiological ages. These times are determined based on corresponding positions of ground layers, i. Organic fossil remains contained in older geological layers provide important insight into the stratigraphic scale. What relation exists between absolute and relative geological times?

For example, are the data complementary or incongruent? The goal of this work is to find the answer to this question.

Radiometric dating

To begin, let us refer to following facts, whose truths remain undisputable among many researchers: However, some of these numbers are not constants. Growth data from million year old fossil corals indicate that Earth years were days in duration in distant times, i. This is an unusual conclusion that is difficult to accept using common sense.

Let us name the value of 1. The abovementioned results complement, and thus strengthen the truth of, estimates of the absolute age of the Earth that were determined by radiometric methods. Along with this conclusion, the evolutionary Earth growth constant of 1. According to the Kant-Laplace hypothesis, Earth was formed via accretionary processes involving gases and dust masses that remained after the formation of the Sun. These processes were largely completed over a time span of 10—20 million years.

We do not share this point of view given that our research suggests that Earth has been growing gradually by 1. The Earth growth hypothesis suggested here is not new; it was first suggested at the beginning of the twentieth century. Since that time, this hypothesis has been actively developing and has modern supporters.

However, much of this research was treated as obsolete after the development of plate tectonics theory. The evolutionary Earth growth constant found by us can serve as solid ground to revive the expanding Earth hypothesis. The greatest thinkers of our planet have been fascinated by questions about the origin and evolution of the planetary system and the Sun. Philosopher Kant and mathematician Laplace along with many astronomers and physicists of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries tackled this problem.

Although much understanding has been gained over the past two centuries, conclusive answers to questions pertaining to the origin and evolution of our solar system are still not clear.

Experimental study of rocks

In the classical Kant-Laplace hypothesis, angular momentum is the most important characteristic of an isolated mechanical system, which our Sun and its surrounding planets are. The whole process of planetary evolution, from the initial stage of cosmic nebula to the formation of the Sun and the eight planets, was in strict accordance with angular momentum. The rotation consists of the orbital motion of the planets and the axial rotation of the Sun and the planets.

Angular momentum of each planet relative to the center of mass almost coinciding with the center of the Sun is defined as the product of the mass of the planet, its speed, and the distance to the center of rotation, e. Angular momentum associated with the rotation of the planets around their axes is negligible because of the relatively small masses of the planets and their radii [ 4 ].

How old is the Earth? This is one of the most important concerns for humanity, as the Earth is the cradle of humankind and all living beings. The answer can be found in many scientific reference materials. Presently, Christian, Islamic, and Judaic scholars insist that the age of the Earth and the universe is not more than to 12, years, and their views are based on religious texts.

Importantly, these sacred texts are based on symbolic years and periods. Yet, it is worthwhile to note that even the history of the development of scientific methods for determining the age of the Earth is full of blind alleys and misconceptions.

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Thomson published a series of works between and devoted to the determination of the age of the Earth. He assumed that the Earth formed in a liquid state, and then, it began to cool as heat radiated from its surface. Using the theory of heat conduction, he calculated the time required for the Earth to cool to its modern temperature.


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This hypothesis brought Thomson into dispute with the great naturalist Charles Darwin, who knew that the discovery of radioactivity by Becquerel in would resolve this dispute in the future. American chemist Willard Libby developed the absolute radiocarbon dating method for organic subjects in , and he won the Nobel Prize for chemistry in for his work. Quickly, researchers realized that radioactive elements could work as natural clocks, as radioactive decay adheres to strict time patterns.

The majority of evolutionists accept the current estimated age for the Earth and our solar system of 4. What is this based on? This estimate was derived from the ratios of various lead isotopes found in meteorites. Using this method, the oldest terrestrial rocks have been characterized as being 3.


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  • Presently, scientists tend not to argue over the age of the Earth, largely as a result of the continued development of the radiometric dating method and elimination of some of its shortcomings. However, additional evidence is required in order to determine the age of the Earth accurately. This is because the radiometric method, which indicates an Earth age of 4. In other words, it would be beneficial to determine the age of the Earth on a different basis. As is known from studies of million year old fossil corals, Earth years were days in duration during distant times.

    Non-Radiometric Dating of the Age of the Earth: Implications From Fossil Coral Evidence

    This fact was detected through analyses of the growth lines on the bodies of fossil corals, whereby every specific line represents a year, similar to the rings on a cut tree [ 7 , 8 ]. In the past, the Earth rotated faster than it does today. We shall now turn to the physics of solid body rotation to study this phenomenon. Let us consider the main categories of rotational movements and discuss the fundamental law of rotational motion dynamics.

    The moment of inertia of a body defines the inertia of that body with respect to rotational motion. The moment of inertia includes the impact of the angular acceleration of a body mass, its geometrical dimensions, location of the mass relative to the axis of rotation, and distribution of the mass in the volume of the body. Mass moment of inertia m located at a distance r from the axis is taken to be equal to. The kinetic energy of a rotating body is equal to half the product of its moment of inertia and the square of the angular velocity as follows:.

    In accordance with the law of kinetic energy conservation, we can state that E 1 and E 2 , which means that. Where are the mass, radius, and angular velocity of the Earth million years ago and are the mass, radius, and angular velocity of the Earth today. When asked for your age, it's likely you won't slip with the exception of a recent birthday mistake.

    But for the sprawling sphere we call home, age is a much trickier matter. Before so-called radiometric dating, Earth's age was anybody's guess. Our planet was pegged at a youthful few thousand years old by Bible readers by counting all the "begats" since Adam as late as the end of the 19th century, with physicist Lord Kelvin providing another nascent estimate of million years.

    Kelvin defended this calculation throughout his life, even disputing Darwin's explanations of evolution as impossible in that time period. In , Marie Curie discovered the phenomenon of radioactivity, in which unstable atoms lose energy, or decay, by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves.

    By physicist Ernest Rutherford showed how this decay process could act as a clock for dating old rocks. Meanwhile, Arthur Holmes was finishing up a geology degree at the Imperial College of Science in London where he developed the technique of dating rocks using the uranium-lead method.

    By applying the technique to his oldest rock, Holmes proposed that the Earth was at least 1.